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Antislavery Poetry from San Francisco

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The Pacific Appeal was the leading African American newspaper on the West Coast during the early 1860s.  A newly-published set of eight antislavery poems from the journal's inaugural 1862 volume captures the sense of expectancy within the African American community for the imminent end of US slavery.  These poems include the work of James Madison Bell, a San Francisco plasterer, brickmason, and poet.  Read more... 
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Captains Drayton and Sayres; Or the Way in Which Americans are Treated, for Aiding the Cause of Liberty at Home (XHTML)

Anonymous tract published in 1848 by the Eastern Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society concerning prosecution of Daniel Drayton and Edwin Sayres, a case involving two whites who attempted to aid slaves to escape the District of Columbia. Digitized by the Antislavery Literature Project.

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<div class="Section1">
  <p align="center" style='text-align:center;line-height:200%'><b><span
style='letter-spacing:-.1pt'>CAPTAINS DRAYTON AND SAYRES;</span></b></p>
  <p align="center" style='text-align:center;line-height:200%'><b><span
style='letter-spacing:.35pt'>Or the way in which Americans are treated, for
    aiding<br />
    </span></b><b><span style='letter-spacing:.1pt'>the cause of Liberty at Home.</span></b></p>
  <p align="center" style='text-align:center'><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">This is an annotated edition of the
    original text of <i>Captains Drayton and Sayres; or the Way in Which American
    are Treated, for Aiding the Cause of Liberty at Home</i>,? published in 1848 by
    the Eastern Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society in Philadelphia.? No editor or
    author is listed or has been? identified for this tract beyond those copied and
    identified in the text.? Original spelling, punctuation and page citations have
    been retained; minor typographic errors have been corrected.</span></b></p>
  <p align="center" style='text-align:center'><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">This electronic edition has been prepared
    for the Antislavery Literature Project, Arizona State University, a public
    education project working in cooperation with the English Server, Iowa State
    University.?? Digitization has been supported by a grant from the Institute for
    Humanities Research, Arizona State University.? </span></b></p>
  <p class="MsoBodyTextIndent"><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">Introduction
    and editorial annotation by Joe Lockard.? Digitization and annotation research
    by April Brannon.? All rights reserved by the Antislavery Literature Project.?
    Permission for non-commercial educational use is granted.</span></p>
  <h1><span style='font-size:11.0pt'>Text Introduction</span></h1>
  <p><span style='font-size:11.0pt;letter-spacing:.15pt'>??????????? This
    anonymously-authored tract published by Philadelphia abolitionists describes
    one of the best-known antebellum escapes, an effort that failed but caused
    national controversy.? </span><span style='font-size:11.0pt' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">On
    the evening of February 17, 1848, the schooner <i>Pearl</i> left Washington,
    DC, with 77 fugitive slaves aboard.<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title="" id="_ftnref1"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[1]</span></span></span></a>?
    The escape was organized with the assistance of Daniel Drayton, who had aided
    earlier escapes in the Chesapeake Bay and was now working with William Chaplin,
    an abolitionist and Underground Railroad agent.? It was a mercenary venture
    with humanitarian sponsorship.? Drayton served as the vessel?s captain, Edwin Sayres
    as the vessel owner and co-captain, and Chester English as sailor and cook. Two
    local blacks, Thomas Ducket and Daniel Bell, organized fugitives for the
    escape.? However, the vessel?s departure was betrayed by Judson Diggs, a black
    drayman, and a steamboat was used to pursue and re-capture the fugitive slaves
    aboard the <i>Pearl</i>.? The prisoners were paraded to jail in the city; many
    were later sold.??? </span></p>
  <p><span
style='font-size:11.0pt' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">On the day of the re-capture, February 18, a? white
    mob rioted in front of the anti-slavery Washington newspaper, the <i>National
    Era</i>, edited by Gamaliel Bailey.? The case became a national issue, in part
    because of the public violence and in part because of the ensuing Congressional
    debates.? Congressmen Joshua Giddings of Ohio, a leading anti-slavery voice, together
    with others raised the case on the House and Senate floors.? In <i>The Biglow
    Papers</i>, James Russell Lowell satirized the pro-slavery politicians in this
    debate.<a href="#_ftn2" name="_ftnref2" title="" id="_ftnref2"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[2]</span></span></span></a>?
    Harriet Beecher Stowe incorporated details of the case into <i>Uncle Tom?s
    Cabin</i> and provided a case history in <i>The Key to Uncle Tom?s Cabin</i>.<a
href="#_ftn3" name="_ftnref3" title="" id="_ftnref3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:11.0pt;
font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[3]</span></span></span></a>? For abolitionists,
    the case illustrated the contradiction between welcoming the new republican
    spirit of Europe in 1848 and the absence of liberty under slavery in the United
    States.</span></p>
  <p><span
style='font-size:11.0pt' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">Drayton was indicted on 41 charges of larceny and 71
    misdemeanor charges,<a href="#_ftn4" name="_ftnref4" title="" id="_ftnref4"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[4]</span></span></span></a> and Sayres faced similar charges. </span><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">Charges against
    English were dropped on account of lack of prior knowledge</span><span style='font-size:11.0pt'
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">.? A Boston defense committee assembled
    with the participation of William Channing, abolitionist editor Samuel May,
    social reformer Samuel Gridley Howe, author and attorney Richard Hildreth,
    Samuel Sewall, and Robert Morris, Jr.? Among the national political figures who
    volunteered to serve as defense counsel were Horace Mann, William Seward, and Salmon
    P. Chase.? Drayton was found guilty and sentenced to twenty years in prison;
    the sentence was overturned on appeal for prosecutorial misconduct.? He was
    sentenced to pay over $10,000 in fines and remain in prison until payment.?
    Sayres was initially acquitted, but was retried on separate charges and
    similarly fined.? Both were released after a pardon from President Millard
    Fillmore over four years later.? The escape that they attempted to organize was
    one of the largest mass escape attempts in the history of slavery in the United
    States.</span></p>
  <p><span
style='font-size:11.0pt' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">??????????????????????? Joe Lockard <a href="#_ftn5"
name="_ftnref5" title="" id="_ftnref5"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:11.0pt;
font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[5]</span></span></span></a></span></p>
  <p><span style='letter-spacing:.15pt'>[no cover binding or
    title page]</span></p>
  <p><span style='letter-spacing:.15pt'>[text begins beneath
    title]</span></p>
  <p><span style='letter-spacing:.15pt'>[page 1]</span></p>
  <p><span
style='letter-spacing:.15pt'>Three citizens of the Free States, two of whom are
    Pennsylvanians, are now lying in the </span>prison of the District of Columbia. <span style='letter-spacing:.05pt'>They are not charged with the violation of
    any law of </span>their own state, or of the United States. The facts in the
    case are these:</p>
  <p>On the night of Saturday the 15th
    of April, seventy-seven human beings, who had all <span style='letter-spacing:
.3pt'>their lives worn the yoke of slavery, made a bold attempt to regain their
    Freedom. </span><span style='letter-spacing:.35pt'>They </span>were slaves in
    and near the city of Washington, and perchance had heard that he whose <span
style='letter-spacing:-.1pt'>name the proud capital of the nation bore, had
    toiled and striven and fought through long years for freedom. They were near to
    Virginia, and it may be, had caught the sound of those brave </span>words of
    Patrick Henry, &quot;<span style='letter-spacing:-.1pt'>Give me Liberty or give me Death</span>!&quot;<a href="#_ftn6" name="_ftnref6" title="" id="_ftnref6"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'>[6]</span></span></span></a> or had marked a lettered scroll <span style='letter-spacing:.05pt'>hearing the
    strange motto, </span>&quot;<span style='letter-spacing:.05pt'>Resistance to
    tyrants is obedience to God</span>!&quot;<a href="#_ftn7" name="_ftnref7"
title="" id="_ftnref7"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'>[7]</span></span></span></a>? <span style='letter-spacing:.05pt'>The love of liberty </span><span
style='letter-spacing:-.05pt'>burned within their souls</span>; they knew that
    it was their birthright, that they had been cruelly, <span style='letter-spacing:
-.05pt'>basely, wronged in the loss of it. They knew it, as you, reader, would
    know it in your own </span>case, if the kidnapper's hand should seize you to
    night, and consign you to chains and the auction block. They knew it by the
    instinct of human nature. <span style='letter-spacing:.05pt'>They sought their
    inaliena?</span>ble rights of freedom, not as our forefathers sought theirs, by
    deadly battle with their oppres?<span style='letter-spacing:-.05pt'>sors, but
    by quietly fleeing from those who had usurped authority over them, who, day by
    day, had robbed and spoiled them, from their youth up. They dealt no blow of
    vengeance </span>for the hoarded wrongs of years, ere they departed. <span
style='letter-spacing:.9pt'>They </span><span style='letter-spacing:-.05pt'>simply
    took their own, what their </span><span style='letter-spacing:.25pt'>Creator
    gave them, at the hour of their birth, their Freedom, and went forth to seek a
    spot where </span><span style='letter-spacing:.3pt'>they might enjoy it
    unmolested. They were quickly pursued by thirty armed citizens of George?<span style='letter-spacing:0pt'>town</span><span style='letter-spacing:0pt'>; they
    were captured as they lay at anchor in their little schooner near the mouth of
    the </span></span><span style='letter-spacing:.05pt'>Potomac, taken back to Washington, and thrust into the prison of the District; the slave </span>prison built and
    sustained, mainly by northern money and northern power. Their fate is well <span
style='letter-spacing:.2pt'>known. </span><span style='letter-spacing:-.05pt'>Quickly
    their bright vision of hope was turned into blackness of darkness</span>; the
    one ray of sunlight which had peered through the chinks of their prison wall,
    vanished forever. <span style='letter-spacing:.05pt'>Some of these, our
    brethren and sisters, are</span></p>
  <p><span
style='letter-spacing:.05pt'>????????????????????? </span>&quot;<span
style='letter-spacing:-.3pt'>Sold and gone,</span></p>
  <p><span
style='letter-spacing:.05pt'>????????????????????? </span><span
style='letter-spacing:.1pt'>To the rice swamp dank and lone,&quot; </span></p>
  <p><span style='letter-spacing:.2pt'>some
    still lie in their prison.</span></p>
  <p>The following
    extract of a letter from John I. Slingerland, M.C.,<a href="#_ftn8"
name="_ftnref8" title="" id="_ftnref8"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'>[8]</span></span></span></a> graphically portrays the horrors of their fate.</p>
  <p><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;letter-spacing:-.8pt'>????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? </span><span style='letter-spacing:-.8pt'>?</span>Correspondence of the Albany Evening Journal<span style='letter-spacing:.65pt'>.</span></p>
  <p>????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????????????????????WASHINGTON, <span style='letter-spacing:
-.05pt'>April 22.</span></p>
  <p><span
style='letter-spacing:.4pt'>HORRORS </span>OF SLAVERY<i>. ? Friend Weed</i>,<a
href="#_ftn9" name="_ftnref9" title="" id="_ftnref9"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'>[9]</span></span></span></a> <i>? </i>Last<i> </i><span style='letter-spacing:-.15pt'>evening, in passing
    the Railroad Depot, I saw </span><span style='letter-spacing:-.2pt'>quite a
    number of colored persons gathered round one of the cars, and from
    manifestations of </span><span style='letter-spacing:-.15pt'>grief among some
    of them, I was induced to draw near and ascertain the cause. </span><span
style='letter-spacing:-.2pt'>I found in the </span><span style='letter-spacing:
-.1pt'>car toward which they were so eagerly gazing, </span><i><span
style='letter-spacing:.2pt'>fifty </span>colored <span style='letter-spacing:
-.15pt'>persons, </span></i>some of whom were nearly <span style='letter-spacing:
.05pt'>as white as myself. </span><span style='letter-spacing:-.15pt'>A large
    majority of the number were those who attempted to gain their </span>liberty
    last week, in the schooner Pearl. About half of them were females, a few of
    whom had <span style='letter-spacing:-.15pt'>but a slight tinge of African
    blood in their veins</span>; they were finely formed and beautiful.</p>
  <p><span
style='letter-spacing:.6pt'>?????????????????? The men were ironed together,
    and the whole group looked sad and dejected. </span><span style='letter-spacing:
-.05pt'>At each end of </span><span style='letter-spacing:-.15pt'>the car stood
    a ruffian-looking guard, with large canes in their hands. </span><span
style='letter-spacing:-.25pt'>In the middle of the car </span><span
style='letter-spacing:-.05pt'>stood the notorious slave-dealer of Baltimore, who is a member of the Methodist Church, in good </span><span style='letter-spacing:
-.1pt'>and regular standing. </span><span style='letter-spacing:-.3pt'>He had purchased
    the men and women around him, and was taking his </span><span style='letter-spacing:
-.05pt'>departure for Georgia. </span><span style='letter-spacing:-.2pt'>While
    observing this old gray-headed dealer in the bodies and souls of </span>men,
    the Chaplain of the Senate?a Methodist brother?entered the car, and took his
    brother <span style='letter-spacing:-.15pt'>Methodist by the hand, chatted with
    him for a short time, and seemed to view the heart-rending scene before him
    with as little concern as we would look upon cattle</span>! <span
style='letter-spacing:-.2pt'>I know not whether he </span><span
style='letter-spacing:-.1pt'>came with a view to sanctify the act, or pronounce
    the parting blessing</span>; <span style='letter-spacing:.1pt'>this I do know
    that he </span>justifies slavery.</p>
  <p><span
style='letter-spacing:-.05pt'>A Presbyterian Minister, who owned one of the
    fugitives, was the first to strike a bargain </span><span style='letter-spacing:
-.1pt'>with the Slave Dealer, and make merchandize of God's image. </span><span
style='letter-spacing:-.25pt'>Some of the colored people </span>outside, as
    well as in the car, were weeping most bitterly. <span style='letter-spacing:
-.1pt'>I learned that many families were </span><span style='letter-spacing:
.1pt'>separated. </span><span style='letter-spacing:-.15pt'>Wives were there to
    take leave of their husbands, and husbands of their wives</span>; <span
style='letter-spacing:-.1pt'>children of their parents, and parents of their
    children. </span><span style='letter-spacing:-.05pt'>Friends parting with
    friends, and the </span><span style='letter-spacing:-.1pt'>tenderest ties of
    humanity severed at a single word of the inhuman Slave Broker before them. </span><span
style='letter-spacing:-.15pt'>A husband, in the meridian of life, begged to see
    the partner of his bosom. </span><span style='letter-spacing:-.05pt'>He
    protested that </span><span style='letter-spacing:.1pt'>she was free?that she
    had free papers, and was torn away from him and shut up in the jail. </span><span
style='letter-spacing:-.4pt'>He </span>clambered up to one of the windows of
    the car to see his wife, and, as she was reaching forward <span
style='letter-spacing:-.1pt'>her hand to him, the black-hearted Slave Dealer
    ordered him down. </span>He did not obey.</p>
  <p><span
style='letter-spacing:-.05pt'>?????????????????????? </span>The husband and
    wife, with tears streaming down their cheeks, besought him to let them speak to
    each other. But no; he was knocked down from the car, and ordered away! The
    bystanders could hardly refrain laying violent hands upon the brute. This is
    but a faint descrip?tion of the scene which took place within a few rods of the
    Capitol, and under enactments recognized by Congress. Oh, what a revolting
    scene to a feeling heart, and what a retribution awaits the actors. Will not
    their wailings of anguish reach the Most High? ?Vengeance is mine?I will repay,
    saith the Lord.?<a href="#_ftn10" name="_ftnref10" title="" id="_ftnref10"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'>[10]</span></span></span></a></p>
  <p>You have already heard of the
    fugitive case, and mob here. A very exciting discussion has been going on in
    the House for the last two days growing out of these riots.? The galleries
    [indistinct text copy ? <i>ed</i>.]</p>
  <br clear="all" style='page-break-before:always' />
</div>
<br clear="all" style='page-break-before:auto' />
<div class="Section2">
  <p>[page 2]</p>
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='
text-align:left;
line-height:normal'>But among the brave band which crowded the
    deck of this little &quot;Mayflower,&quot; were three white men, two of whom
    had chosen to peril their own freedom, ay, and their lives also, for the sake
    of giving freedom to their fellow men. In so doing they followed the example of
    Huger and Bollman, who went from South Carolina to Austria, to steel away the
    illustrious La Fayette from the prison of Olmutz.<a href="#_ftn11"
name="_ftnref11" title="" id="_ftnref11"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'>[11]</span></span></span></a>?
    Had they done that deed on the coast of Algiers for Anglo Saxon captives, their
    names would have been canonized among men; this nation would have risen up to
    do them homage. Because they did it on the coast of America, for the victims of
    American cupidity, they are ignominiously branded as felons, and consigned to a
    felon's prison. Their names, names which shall go down with honor to posterity,
    are Edward Sayres and Daniel Drayton. Freemen of the North! These men lie in <i>your
    prison, </i>awaiting a trial; and for what? With what are they charged? With
    having aided the escape of slaves. What a charge to be brought against a man,
    before a court of the <i>freest republic on earth! </i>?He helped to give
    innocent men their inalienable right of Freedom! Tell<i> </i>it not in Paris, publish it not in the streets of Vienna, lest the new republic discern our
    hollowness, and Meternich take courage!<a href="#_ftn12" name="_ftnref12"
title="" id="_ftnref12"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'>[12]</span></span></span></a></p>
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='text-align:left;
line-height:normal'>??????????? This is a deed which concerns
    every American citizen, for it is being done, not on a South Carolina
    plantation, not under the laws of Virginia, but in the nation's Capital, on
    that ten miles square, which belongs to every citizen of the United States;
    with the money of North?ern freemen as well as Southern slave-holders; and the
    voters of Pennsylvania are as truly responsible for it as are those of Maryland
    or Virginia. The attention of Congress has been called to the subject, and,
    during several days, the Senate and the House were violently agitated with the
    debates which it elicited. On the 18th of April, Mr. Giddings<a href="#_ftn13"
name="_ftnref13" title="" id="_ftnref13"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'>[13]</span></span></span></a> presented to the House, the following resolutions:</p>
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='text-align:left;
line-height:normal'><i><span style='letter-spacing:.75pt'>Whereas, </span></i><span style='letter-spacing:-.1pt'>More than eighty men, women and
    children, are said to be confined in the</span><span style='letter-spacing:
-.2pt'> prison </span><span style='letter-spacing:.5pt'>of the District of
    Columbia, without being charged with crime, or any impropriety,</span> <span
style='letter-spacing:-.1pt'>than an </span><span style='letter-spacing:.45pt'>attempt
    to enjoy the liberty for which our fathers encountered toil, suffering, and
    death </span><span style='letter-spacing:-.15pt'>itself, and </span><span
style='letter-spacing:-.05pt'>for which the people of many European Governments
    are now struggling:<a href="#_ftn14" name="_ftnref14" title="" id="_ftnref14"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;letter-spacing:-.05pt'>[14]</span></span></span></a> And whereas said prison was erected, and is now sustained, by funds contributed
    by the people of the free as well</span><i><span style='letter-spacing:.1pt'> </span></i><span
style='letter-spacing:-.2pt'>as of slave </span><span style='letter-spacing:
-.25pt'>States, and is under the control of the laws and officers of the United
    States: And whereas such </span><span style='letter-spacing:-.15pt'>conduct </span>is <span style='letter-spacing:-.05pt'>derogatory to our national character,
    incompatible with the duty </span>of <span style='letter-spacing:-.1pt'>a
    civilized and Chris?</span><span style='letter-spacing:.45pt'>tian people, and
    unworthy of being sustained by an American Congress ? therefore,</span></p>
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='text-align:left;
line-height:normal'><i><span style='letter-spacing:.2pt'>Be </span><span
style='letter-spacing:.1pt'>it </span><span style='letter-spacing:.6pt'>resolved, </span></i>That a Select Committee, of five <span style='letter-spacing:-.1pt'>members
    of this body, be appointed to inquire </span><span style='letter-spacing:-.05pt'>into
    and report to this House by what authority said prison is used for the purpose
    of confining </span>per?<span style='letter-spacing:-.1pt'>sons who have
    attempted to escape from Slavery ? with leave to report what legislation is
    proper </span><span style='letter-spacing:-.2pt'>in regard to said practice.</span></p>
  <p><i><span
style='letter-spacing:.5pt'>Resolved, further, </span></i><span
style='letter-spacing:-.1pt'>That said Committee be authorized to send for persons
    and papers.</span></p>
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='text-align:left;
line-height:normal'><span style='letter-spacing:-.05pt'>What is
    there in such a preamble and resolutions to offend the Legislature of a
    Freedom-</span><span style='letter-spacing:.1pt'>loving nation?? </span>Yet
    they were rejected in anger. <span style='letter-spacing:.05pt'>During the
    debates which this subject ex</span><span style='letter-spacing:.1pt'>cited,
    the members of our</span> <i><span style='letter-spacing:.45pt'>&quot;</span><span
style='letter-spacing:.75pt'>free</span><span style='letter-spacing:.45pt'>&quot;</span></i><span
style='letter-spacing:.45pt'> </span><span style='letter-spacing:.05pt'>government,
    the representatives of a </span><i><span style='letter-spacing:.45pt'>&quot;free&quot; </span></i><span style='letter-spacing:-.1pt'>people, stood </span>up in their
    places of power, and defended the institution of slavery from the assaults of
    the <span style='letter-spacing:-.05pt'>few men who dared to denounce it with
    the spirit of men</span>; <span style='letter-spacing:.05pt'>so thoroughly has
    the evil genius </span><span style='letter-spacing:.3pt'>which has turned our
    nation's Capital into a slave mart, corrupted our government.</span></p>
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='text-align:left;
line-height:normal'><span style='letter-spacing:.15pt'>And
    while these dark deeds were bring enacted at Washington, Congress was exulting </span><span
style='letter-spacing:.05pt'>over the triumphs of Freedom in France; congratulating the men who there had burst </span><span style='letter-spacing:.15pt'>their
    long-worn bonds, and stood up, in the might of manhood, to demand the rights of
    man</span>! <span style='letter-spacing:.15pt'>With one breath, shouting peans
    to Liberty in France; with the next, anathematizing those </span><span
style='letter-spacing:.1pt'>who had caught her spirit, on the shores of America</span>! <span style='letter-spacing:.05pt'>What a spectacle to the nations of the </span><span
style='letter-spacing:.15pt'>earth, does our government present at this moment! </span>These persecuted men are confessors of <span style='letter-spacing:.15pt'>Freedom,
    and if a martyr's fate await there, they will die for Liberty</span>; <span
style='letter-spacing:-.15pt'>sacrificed in the inner </span><span
style='letter-spacing:.05pt'>court of a temple dedicated to her worship. </span><span
style='letter-spacing:-.1pt'>Of the character of these men, we have only to </span>say,
    that, judging from what has transpired, we have no reason to question the
    benevolence of the <span style='letter-spacing:.05pt'>motives which urged them
    to this noble deed of daring. The following extract of a letter un?</span><span
style='letter-spacing:-.1pt'>derstood to be written by Dr. Howe, of Boston,<a href="#_ftn15" name="_ftnref15" title="" id="_ftnref15"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;
letter-spacing:-.1pt'>[15]</span></span></span></a> </span></p>
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='text-align:left;
line-height:normal'>who has recently visited them in their
    prison, will introduce one of them to the acquaintance of the reader, and also
    reveal to him something of the nature of that odious institution which the
    people of the North sanction and support. Dr. Howe is well known to the
    community as the Principal of the Institution of the Blind, in South Boston. He was among those lovers of Greece, who did battle for Freedom in her
    behalf, and his love of Liberty is not so spurious as that which inflames the
    breasts of many American heroes. He visited Washington on behalf of a committee
    who were appointed to make arrangements for the trial of Capt. Drayton, Capt.
    Sayres and their companion. He thus writes from that city:</p>
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='text-align:left;
line-height:normal'>??????????? ?In this gathering place of the
    knowing men and great rogues of the land, there was one person whom I was most
    desirous of seeing and tendering honor to, and whom I first sought. And where
    do you think I sought him?? In the White House ? in the Senate ? in the Speak?er's
    chair? No!? But in the Prison, ? locked up alone in a gloomy dungeon, that had
    no window, or chair, or bed, that offered him only its stone walls to lean
    against when weary, and its stone floor to lie down upon when he sought sleep.</p>
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='
text-align:left;
line-height:normal'>It was only with much trouble and difficulty, and with the
    aid of men who are held in fear by the<sup> ?</sup>powers that be,? that I was
    allowed to visit him. I stood at the door of his cell, into the darkness of
    which the eye could not see clearly; and when he came forward, I thrust my hand
    through the grating and grasped his, with more heartiness and warmth than I
    could bear,</p>
</div>
<br clear="all"
style='page-break-before:always' />
<div class="Section3">
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='text-align:left;
line-height:normal'><span style='letter-spacing:.5pt'>[page 3]</span></p>
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='text-align:left;
line-height:normal'>fearful as was his future, I should rather
    have done the deed that gained for him his present place, than some of those
    which gained for them theirs.</p>
  <p class="Style2" align="left" style='
text-align:left;
'>You know, of course, whom I mean, ? DRAYTON, the chief
    actor in the late noble and daring attempt to free four-score human beings from
    Slavery and degradation. He seems made for a soldier in such a cause: a hold,
    stern, determined man, ready to do battle unto the death in the cause of right.
    He has in him much of the stuff of which martyrs are made, and he will, I
    trust, bear unflinchingly to the end, all the moral and bodily suffering which
    he is doomed to endure. He is in the fullness of manhood, ? a tall, stalwart
    fellow, whose strongly-marked features and steady eve denote character and
    courage, and whose open and ingenuous countenance inspires confidence and
    respect. He will have need, I fear, of all his vigor of body, and all his
    strength of mind, to hear up against the cruel treatment which has already
    begun, and which may last until his frame, now so vigorous and erect, is bowed
    down with age, and his eye, now so clear and stern, is dimmed with the shadows
    of death.</p>
  <p class="Style2" align="left" style='
text-align:left;
'>He is aware of his position and his danger: indeed, he was
    well aware of the risk he run, and counted the cost before he set out upon his
    enterprise, and provided for his family in case of his capture. He is now in
    the iron grip of the law, made by slave-holders themselves to protect what they
    call their <i>property</i> in the bodies and souls of human beings, and made as<i> </i>sharp and as strong as the wit of wicked men could make it. The law, too,
    is administered with a cruelty that is revolting.</p>
  <p class="Style2" align="left" style='
text-align:left;
'>The man has been kept, till now, <i>all secret, </i>as it
    is called by the few European Governments which still preserve this relic of
    inquisitorial treatment. He is considered guilty ? he is virtually refused
    hail-he is cut off from communion or correspondence with his friends?he is put
    to the tortures of solitude and suspense-he is treated in short, worse than
    would be a felon or murderer. And all this cruelty ? where and for what? Why,
    in the Capital and under the flag of that people, whose shibboleth is<i> </i>&quot;<i>liberty,</i>&quot;<i> </i>whose creed is the right of every<i> </i>man to the pursuit of happiness;
    and for the crime of helping to pronounce that shibboleth and live by that
    creed!</p>
  <p class="Style2" align="left" style='
text-align:left;
'>The excitement among the slave-holders is still intense, ?
    their wrath is still hot, and they mean to make Drayton drag out a life of
    misery, and be a living beacon to deter others attempting to knock off the
    shackles of their slaves. The punishment for<i> stealing </i>a slave, with a
    view of selling him, is imprisonment for from seven to twenty years, at hard
    labour; for taking him with a VIEW OF SETTING HIM AT LIBERTY, it is payment of
    his <i>market value, </i>a fine of two hundred dollars, and imprisonment in the
    jail.</p>
  <p class="Style2" align="left" style='
text-align:left;
'>With a refinement of cruelty, they mean to try to convict
    Drayton of the crime of stealing slaves for his own gain; and, lest he might
    live twenty years, and then go </p>
  <p class="Style2" align="left" style='
text-align:left;
'>out a gray-headed Man from his prison, they mean to bring an
    indictment for each slave whom he tried to carry off.</p>
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='
text-align:left;
line-height:normal'>Failing in the attempt to convict him of
    the first offense, they mean to convict him of the second; and in the one way
    or the other, to glut their vengeance upon him.</p>
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='
text-align:left;
line-height:normal'>He is aware of his position and his
    danger; but he quails not, and he said to me, in hearing of his turnkey, and in
    a firm but quiet tone. ? &quot;I know I have broken the laws which men have
    enacted for this particular spot of earth, but I have transgressed none of the
    laws which God made for all places and all times:'' to which I said, with all
    the earnestness I could give it, ? &quot;Hold on to that thought, my friend,
    and it shall be to you an anchor both sure and steadfast in the fiercest storm
    that can ever sweep over you.&quot;</p>
  <p>It is useless
    to tell you what were the feelings which swelled in my bosom as I looked upon
    the walls and bars of this prison; how I choked with the effort to put them
    down; and how hard it was to remember a resolution that, though force and
    violence could right the wrong, it should never again he resorted to! But
    courage and hope! A better day<i> </i>is coming; already it dawns; and, should
    Drayton be condemned, he will not he an old man ere it reaches its meridian
    splendor; and before its light his prison doors shall open as did those of the
    apostle before the messenger of God! Let us <i>labor </i>and <i>wait!&quot;?? </i><b>H.</b><a
href="#_ftn16" name="_ftnref16" title="" id="_ftnref16"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'>[16]</span></span></span></a></p>
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='text-align:left;
line-height:normal'>E. S.<b> </b>Hamlin, Esq.,<a
href="#_ftn17" name="_ftnref17" title="" id="_ftnref17"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'>[17]</span></span></span></a> one of the counsel in the case, thus writes upon the subject.</p>
  <p>&quot;As an evidence of the manner
    in which justice is administered here, I would state that the three prisoners
    who were bound over to appear at court and answer to the charge of aiding in
    the escape of the negroes, are each required to give bail in the sum of
    $76,000! This is a country where the Constitution requires that <i>excessive</i> bail shall not be demanded. One of the men, as I have already stated in a
    previous letter, was proved to be innocent on the examina?tion. Still he was
    bound over, and bail required </p>
  <p>to the amount of $76,000. He did think some of applying
    for a <i>habeas corpus,</i> for the purpose of having the amount reduced by
    Judge Cranch.<a href="#_ftn18" name="_ftnref18" title="" id="_ftnref18"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'>[18]</span></span></span></a> He could give bail in the sum of $5000. But we were given to understand that if
    released, he would not leave the city alive. The jail is constantly watched by
    men who have nothing to do with it, but who are determined that no one of the
    prisoners shall ever go acquitted. The jailor has strict orders not to permit
    any one to have any conversation with them, except in his presence ? <i>not</i> <i>even their counsel. </i>The prisoners are confined in cold cells, with brick
    floors, and nothing to sleep on, except a single blanket. As yet, they have not
    disclosed the names of any persons who were engaged in the enterprise with
    them, and they assured me that they never would do it.</p>
  <br clear="all"
style='page-break-before:always' />
</div>
<br clear="all"
style='page-break-before:auto' />
<div class="Section4">
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='
text-align:left;
line-height:normal'>[page 4]</p>
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='
text-align:left;
line-height:normal'>? By what authority are they there? The
    jail is the property of the people of the United States, erected by their
    money, for the purpose of receiving and keeping safe those charged or convicted
    of crimes committed in the District. By what authority, then, is it used for the
    keeping of the negroes? The Marshal of this District is appointed by the
    President; he is paid out of the public treasury. Is he thus appointed and paid
    to be employed in the capture and safe-keeping of runaway negroes? <i>Do the
    people of the United States pay </i>him for this purpose? And who pays for the
    keeping of these negroes in jail, their food, &amp;c.? The Marshal of this
    District has applied to Congress to pay him the sum of $5,361.44, for keep?ing
    runaway slaves prior to these, and probably he will soon present another bill
    for keeping these. And what is worse, he has not only applied, but the
    Judiciary Committee has sanc?tioned the application, and Mr. Taylor of Ohio,<a href="#_ftn19" name="_ftnref19" title="" id="_ftnref19"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'>[19]</span></span></span></a> one of that committee, has reported in favor of allowing the claim.&quot;</p>
  <p>Of the
    companion of Captains Drayton and Sayres, we know but little, and therefore
    leave the future to reveal what has been his agency in this work of heroic
    benevolence.</p>
  <p class="Style2" align="left" style='
text-align:left;
'>It is not as individual sufferers that these men have a
    claim upon the attention of the na?tion. It is because they stand before us as
    martyrs to Freedom, because they are threatened by the government of this
    professedly free nation, with punishment, for an attempt to give, by peaceful
    means, freedom to innocent and oppressed men. This fact should startle the na?tion.
    It should rouse the North to inquire into the nature of the system which
    requires such a guardianship, and which it is pledged to support. Freemen of
    the North, shall we permit such deeds to he done before our eyes, in our own
    Capital, by our own servants, without a loud and earnest protest against them?
    Shall we stand by quietly, silently, and see our own sons and brothers seized
    by a jailor, and thrust into a felon's prison, and treated as criminals,
    because, fired with a love of freedom, such as burned in the breast of our
    fathers, they seek to restore to their oppressed fellow-men their inalienable
    rights? Shall we any longer give our support to a system which requires such
    outrages?? Shall we still permit our money to be used for the erection of slave
    prisons; shall we continue to swear allegiance, either direct?ly or by proxy,
    to the Federal Constitution, which requires us to return the fugitive slave to
    his master; to aid in the suppression of slave insurrections, if called upon;
    and which by its infamous </p>
  <p class="Style2" align="left" style='
text-align:left;
'>three fifths clause, allows the slave-holder to represent
    property, instead of free?men, on the floor of Congress. It is Slavery which
    has thrust our fellow citizens into prison, for no crime; it is Slavery, which,
    not content with three millions of victims in the South, is fast plundering the
    North of her rights, and fitting its yoke on our necks! This is no longer to be
    endured. The North has slumbered long, but she is awaiting, and her voice will
    he heard. This is no time for compromises, no time for half-way measures. The
    entire eradi?cation of the system, or the dissolution of the union between the
    North and South, which pledges the former to sustain the latter in her tyranny,
    is the only alternative left for our remedy. Motives of self-respect, of
    justice, of benevolence urge us to immediate and en?ergetic action. The spirit
    breathed in the following language, is the only one which can ex?orcise the
    demon which has taken possession of our fair temple, built for Freedom. It is
    the language of the American Anti-Slavery Society, uttered at its recent Annual
    Meeting. As we read and ponder it, and our better natures respond to its lofty
    sentiments, let us resolve that henceforth we will be of those who are
    actively, zealously, devoted to the work of abolish?ing American Slavery.</p>
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='text-align:left;
line-height:normal'><i>Whereas, </i>An attempt was made in
    the District of Columbia, by a large body of slaves, to obtain their freedom by
    flight, but unsuccessfully; and whereas, they were aided; in this design to
    secure liberty for themselves and their children, by Capt. Sayres and his crew,
    of the schooner Pearl, of Philadelphia, who are now lying in prison in the city
    of Washington to be tried as felons;<a href="#_ftn20" name="_ftnref20" title="" id="_ftnref20"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'>[20]</span></span></span></a> and whereas, this occur?rence has caused great excitement in the District
    aforesaid, and led to a fierce debate in the Halls of Con?gress, on the part of
    the Southern Senators and Representatives, in which the conduct of Captain
    Sayres and his associates has been stigmatized as felonious and piratical, and
    every one who sympathizes with those martyrs branded as accessory to robbery
    and outrage: Therefore,</p>
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='text-align:left;
line-height:normal'><i>Resolved, </i>That this attempt by
    the slaves above alluded to, receives the cordial approbation of the American
    Anti-Slavery Society, as it must of every one who is not a traitor to his race,
    and excites the joyful hope that these are but drops of a coming shower, which
    shall cover the whole surface of the Southern country.</p>
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='text-align:left;
line-height:normal'><i>Resolved, </i>That it is the right of
    the slave to escape from his prison house whenever a favourable opportunity is
    presented, and it is the duty of all to hide the outcast, and betray not him
    that wandereth, whatever may be the consequences.<a href="#_ftn21"
name="_ftnref21" title="" id="_ftnref21"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'>[21]</span></span></span></a></p>
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='text-align:left;
line-height:normal'><i>Resolved, </i>That most deeply do we
    sympathize with the recaptured, in view of the direful sufferings to which they
    will be subjected by their merciless oppressors; but our sorrow is greatly
    assuaged by the firm conviction, that though for the time being, they may have
    riveted more closely their own chains, the effect of their laudable example
    upon the millions of their brethren in bondage, will be to inspire them with a<span
style='letter-spacing:.1pt'> </span></p>
  <p class="Style1" align="left" style='text-align:left;
line-height:normal'>determination to be free, and to hasten the
    day of their deliverance.</p>
  <p class="Style2" align="left" style='
text-align:left;
'><i>Resolved, </i>That Captain Sayres and his association,
    by endeavouring to secure for these slaves a safe and<i> </i>peaceful mode of
    escape on board the schooner Pearl, that they might stand in the enjoyment of
    freedom under the British flag, in Canada, and not crouch as beasts under the
    star spangled banner, performed a noble and Christian act, which is worthy of
    constant imitation, under favorable circumstances, and that they deserve, and
    will receive, the blessings of those who are ready to perish, and the plaudits
    of the friends of Freedom universally.</p>
  <div style='border:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.5pt;padding:0pt 0pt 1.0pt 0pt;
'> </div>
  <p>??????????? Published by the Eastern Pennsylvania
    Anti-Slavery Society, at the Anti-Slavery Office</p>
</div>
<br clear="all" />
<hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" />
<div id="ftn1">
  <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><a href="#_ftnref1"
name="_ftn1" title="" id="_ftn1"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[1]</span></span></span></span></a><span
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> A brief history of events surrounding the <i>Pearl</i> appears in
    Fergus Bordewich, <i>Bound for Canaan: The Underground Railroad and the War for
    the Soul of America</i> (New York: HarperCollins, 2005) 295-299.? For another
    history of the case as it affected the Edmondson family, among the re-captured
    fugitives, see John H. Painter, ?The Fugitives of the <i>Pearl</i>,? <i>Journal
    of Negro History</i> (June 1916) vol. 1, no. 3, 243-264. Also see E. Bruce
    Kirkham, ?A Note on Two Abolitionists and a Pearl,? <i>Journal of Negro History</i> (April 1965) vol. 50, no. 2, 123-125.? </span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn2">
  <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><a href="#_ftnref2"
name="_ftn2" title="" id="_ftn2"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[2]</span></span></span></span></a><span
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> Lowell, ?The Debate in the Sennit.? Sot to a Nusry Rhyme,? paper
    no. 5, 87-95 in <i>The Biglow Papers</i> (New York: Co-operative Publication
    Society, 1910).? </span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn3">
  <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><a href="#_ftnref3"
name="_ftn3" title="" id="_ftn3"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[3]</span></span></span></span></a><span
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> Stowe, <i>The Key to Uncle Tom?s Cabin</i> (London: Clarke,
    Beeton, 1853) 306-339.</span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn4">
  <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><a href="#_ftnref4"
name="_ftn4" title="" id="_ftn4"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[4]</span></span></span></span></a><span
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> See <i>Daniel Drayton v. United States</i>, 1 Hay. &amp; Haz.
    369; 1849 U.S. App. Lexis 472, and <i>Drayton v. United States</i>, 7 F. Cas.
    1063, 1849 U.S. Appeal Lexis 410.? For Drayton?s own account, see <i>Personal
    Memoir of Daniel Drayton, for Four Years and Four Months a Prisoner (for
    Charity?s Sake) in Washington Jail, including a Narrative of the Voyage and
    Capture of the Schooner Pearl</i> (Boston: Bela Marsh; New York: American and
    Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 1855; Library of Congress electronic edition
    available at <span class="MsoHyperlink"><span style='color:windowtext'><a
href="http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.law/llst.008">http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.law/llst.008</a></span></span>).? </span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn5">
  <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><a href="#_ftnref5"
name="_ftn5" title="" id="_ftn5"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[5]</span></span></span></span></a><span
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> Assistant Professor of English, Arizona State University.</span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn6">
  <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><a href="#_ftnref6"
name="_ftn6" title="" id="_ftn6"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[6]</span></span></span></span></a><span
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">? Patrick Henry to Second Virginia Convention, Richmond, Virginia,
    March 23, 1775.? There is no original text of the speech; the known text was
    assembled from the recollections of listeners, primarily Judge John Tyler and
    Judge St. George.? See William Wirt, <i>Sketches of the Life and Character of
    Patrick Henry</i> (New York: Derby and Jackson, 1859) 261-266.</span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn7">
  <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><a href="#_ftnref7"
name="_ftn7" title="" id="_ftn7"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[7]</span></span></span></span></a><span
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> ?Resistance to tyrants is obedience to God!? was a popular theme
    of Garrisonian rhetoric.? See William Lloyd Garrison, ?John Brown and the
    Principle of Non-resistance,? a speech delivered on December 2, 1859, the date
    of John Brown?s execution; in <i>The Liberator</i> 29 (December 16, 1859) 50,
    202.? At the same time, Henry O. Wright used it as a title-page motto in his
    post-Harpers Ferry call to fight slavery, <i>The Natick Resolution; or,
    Resistance to Slaveholders the Right and Duty of Southern Slaves and Northern
    Freemen</i> (Boston, self-published, 1859). The slogan first appeared as a
    motto of American political discourse during the Continental Congress where
    Thomas Jefferson proposed it as a motto for a Moses-at-the-Red-Sea themed coat
    of arms on the national seal;? this seal design was never adopted.? See <i>Journals
    of the Continental Congress</i>, no. 23, folio 143, 690 (Washington, DC: USGPO,
    1904-1937); J. Boyd et. al., <i>Papers of Thomas Jefferson</i>, Fifth Series,
    VIII no. 3, 656 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1950-). The slogan also
    appeared on a Revolutionary War battle flag.? </span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn8">
  <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><a href="#_ftnref8"
name="_ftn8" title="" id="_ftn8"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[8]</span></span></span></span></a><span
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> </span><span style='text-transform:uppercase' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">John
    I. Slingerland</span><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> [1804-1861]</span><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> Congressional representative from New York for the Whig Party in the 30th
    Congress (1847-1849); refused re-nomination.? Attended local public schools; worked
    as farmer; served in New York state legislature in 1843-1844, and again in
    1860-1861.</span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn9">
  <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><a href="#_ftnref9"
name="_ftn9" title="" id="_ftn9"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[9]</span></span></span></span></a><span
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> <span style='text-transform:uppercase'>Thurlow Weed</span> [1797-1862] ?Boss Weed,? a New York State politican and newspaper publisher.?
    Born in Greene County in western New York; had little formal schooling; elected
    to state legislature in 1824; edited the <i>Rochester Telegraph</i>, 1825-1828;
    established the <i>Albany Evening Journal</i> in 1829; became dominant force in
    the Whig Party in New York; his support was instrumental for presidential
    candidates from 1840-1856; in 1853 joined the new Republican Party; was a
    strong abolitionist from the 1830s, but opposed the Emancipation Proclamation
    as a gradualist.</span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn10">
  <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><a href="#_ftnref10"
name="_ftn10" title="" id="_ftn10"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[10]</span></span></span></span></a><span
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> Romans 12:19-21.</span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn11">
  <p><a href="#_ftnref11"
name="_ftn11" title="" id="_ftn11"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
style='font-size:10.0pt' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[11]</span></span></span></span></a><span style='font-size:10.0pt'
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> Refers to a famous rescue attempt by
    Eric Bollman and Francis Kinlock Huger, in behalf of the Marquis de Lafayette,
    who had been imprisoned by Austrian authorities in the Moravian city of Olumutz
    (current Czech Republic, then within the Austro-Hungarian empire).? For details
    of the failed rescue, see Marie-Joseph-Paul-Yves-Roch-Gilbert du Motier, <i>Memoirs
    of General Lafayette, with an Account of his Visit to America, and of his
    Reception by the People of the United States</i> (New York: Saunders and Otley,
    1837)? One of the would-be rescuers, <span style='text-transform:uppercase'>Eric
    Bollman</span> [1769-1821], was born in Germany; studied medicine at Gtingen,
    and practiced in Carlsruhe and in Paris.? In 1792, having fled from the French
    Revolution to London, he was persuaded to rescue Lafayette from Austrian
    captivity and obtained assistance from Francis Huger, a visiting Virginian.?
    After the failed rescue (Lafayette escaped but rode in the wrong direction),
    Bollman was imprisoned.? He was released after a year to the United States,
    where he settled but eventually became implicated in Aaron Burr?s conspiracy in
    1806.? Bollman returned to Europe in 1814 where he published extensively on
    economic theory. </span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn12">
  <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><a href="#_ftnref12"
name="_ftn12" title="" id="_ftn12"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[12]</span></span></span></span></a><span
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> ?New republic? refers to the establishment of the Second Republic
    in France in 1848.? <span style='text-transform:uppercase'>Prince </span></span><span style='text-transform:uppercase'
lang="en" xml:lang="en">Klemens Wenzel von Metternich</span><span
lang="en" xml:lang="en"> [1773-1858] was the conservative Austrian foreign minister and
    statesman who lost power as a result of the Revolution of 1848.</span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn13">
  <p><a href="#_ftnref13" name="_ftn13" title="" id="_ftn13"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'>[13]</span></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'> <span style='text-transform:
uppercase'>Joshua Reed Giddings</span> [1795-1864] Congressional representative
    from Ohio for the Whig Party in the 25<sup>th</sup>-30<sup>th</sup> Congresses,
    for the Free-Soil Party in the 31<sup>st</sup>-33<sup>rd</sup> Congresses, and
    for the Republican Party in the 34<sup>th</sup>-35<sup>th</sup> Congresses.?
    Born in Tioga Point, Bradford County, Pennsylvania; moved as an infant to Canandaigua, New York;</span><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>? </span><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'>again moved with his
    parents to Ashtabula County, Ohio, in 1806; served in the War of 1812; taught
    school; studied law, admitted to the bar in 1821, and commenced practice in Jefferson, Ohio; member of the State house of representatives in 1826.? In 1842, resigned
    from the US House after a vote of censure was passed upon him in response to
    his motion in defense of the slave mutineers in the <i>Creole</i> case, and was
    subsequently re-elected to fill his own vacancy.? Appointed consul general to
    the British North American Provinces in 1861, and served until his death. See
    James Brewer Stewart, <i>Joshua R. Giddings and the Tactics of Radical Politics</i> (Cleveland: Press of Case Western Reserve University, 1970).</span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn14">
  <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><a href="#_ftnref14"
name="_ftn14" title="" id="_ftn14"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[14]</span></span></span></span></a><span
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> This tract was published in mid-1848, when the revolutions of
    that year were in progress.? The terms of the appeal for liberty in these
    resolutions framed by Giddings reflect the influence of news of European
    developments.</span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn15">
  <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><a href="#_ftnref15"
name="_ftn15" title="" id="_ftn15"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[15]</span></span></span></span></a><span
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> <span style='text-transform:uppercase'>Samuel Gridley Howe</span> [1801-1876]? Educational and social reformer.? Howe was a leading US figure in
    special education, supporting educational work with the blind, deaf, mentally
    ill and retarded.?? Born in Boston; graduated Brown and Harvard Medical School;
    went to Greece in 1824 to organize medical services for the Greek army in the
    War of Independence, and spent six years in Greece; in 1831 he visited French
    institutions for the blind and was imprisoned briefly in Prussia for supporting
    the Polish revolution;? returned to the United States to establish the New
    England Asylum for the Blind, which he directed for 44 years.? In 1843, married
    anti-slavery activist Julia Ward, later author of ?The Battle Hymn of the Republic?.?
    Howe was active in anti-slavery societies and was a founder of the Free-Soil
    Party.? Between 1851-1853, Howe and Julia Ward Howe edited the anti-slavery
    journal, <i>Commonwealth</i>; he was a supporter of John Brown, which caused
    him to flee the United States for Canada for several weeks after the Harper?s
    Ferry raid.</span><span style='font-family:Arial' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> </span><span
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">For further, see Laura Richards, <strong><i><span
style='font-weight:normal'>Samuel Gridley Howe, by his Daughter</span></i></strong><strong><span
style='font-weight:normal'> (</span></strong>New York: D. Appleton-Century,
    1935);<strong> </strong>Harold Schwartz, <strong><i><span style='font-weight:
normal'>Samuel Gridley Howe, Social Reformer, 1801-1876</span></i></strong>?
    (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1956); and Milton Meltzer, <i>Light in
    the Dark: The Life of Samuel Gridley Howe</i> (New York, 1964).? For recent
    treatments of Howe?s well-known work with Laura Bridgman, see Ernest Freeberg, <i>The
    Education of Laura Bridgman</i> (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001)
    and Elisabeth Gitter, <i>The Imprisoned Guest: Samuel Howe and Laura Bridgman</i> (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001).</span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn16">
  <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><a href="#_ftnref16"
name="_ftn16" title="" id="_ftn16"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[16]</span></span></span></span></a><span
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> I.e., Samuel Gridley Howe.</span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn17">
  <p><a href="#_ftnref17" name="_ftn17" title="" id="_ftn17"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'>[17]</span></span></span></span></a><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;'> <span style='text-transform:
uppercase'>Edward Stowe Hamlin</span> [1808-1894]? Congressional representative
    from Ohio for the Whig Party in the 28<sup>th</sup> Congress (1844-1845).? Born
    in Hillsdale, New York; studied law; admitted to the bar in 1831 and began
    practice in Elyria, Ohio; prosecuting attorney of Lorain County, 1833-1835; did
    not stand for Congressional re-election in 1845; established <i>The True
    Democrat</i> (now the <i>Cleveland Plain Dealer</i>) in 1846; member of the
    Free-Soil Convention at Buffalo in 1848; pursued business interests in
    railroads and land-holding in later life.? Hamlin was best-known during his
    brief congressional career for opposition to the admission of Texas to the
    Union as a slave state.? See <i>Speech of E.S. Hamlin on the Annexation of
    Texas</i> (Washington: Gideon, 1845).</span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn18">
  <p><a href="#_ftnref18"
name="_ftn18" title="" id="_ftn18"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
style='font-size:10.0pt' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[18]</span></span></span></span></a><span style='font-size:10.0pt'
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> <span style='text-transform:uppercase'>William
    Cranch [1769-1855]</span>? Nephew of First Lady Abigail Adams, was appointed
    the District of Columbia circuit court's chief judge in 1806, where he remained
    until 1855.? Cranch was the Supreme Court reporter during 1801-1815 and remains
    best known for a case report series under his name.? See </span><span style='font-size:10.0pt'
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">Susan Low Bloch and Ruth Bader Ginsburg, <i>Symposium:?
    The Bicentennial Celebration of the Courts of the District of Columbia Circuit:</i></span><i><span
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> </span></i><i><span style='font-size:10.0pt' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">Celebrating
    the 200th Anniversary of the Federal Courts of the District of Columbia</span></i><span style='font-size:10.0pt'
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">, 90 Geo. L.J. (March 2002) 549, at 551,
    fn. 6.</span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn19">
  <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><a href="#_ftnref19"
name="_ftn19" title="" id="_ftn19"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[19]</span></span></span></span></a><span
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> <span style='text-transform:uppercase'>John Lampkin Taylor</span> (1805-1870) Congressional representative from Ohio for the Whig Party, elected
    to the 30th and three succeeding congresses (1847-1855).? Born in Stafford
    County, Virginia; studied law in Washington, D.C.; admitted to the bar in 1828
    and commenced practice in Ross County, Ohio, in 1829; major general in the
    state militia; after his Congressional career, served as a clerk in the
    Interior Department until his death.</span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn20">
  <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><a href="#_ftnref20"
name="_ftn20" title="" id="_ftn20"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[20]</span></span></span></span></a><span
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> The anonymous author of this tract, not yet informed of the
    relationship between Drayton as initiator and Sayres as the vessel-owner who
    agreed to support the escape scheme, assigns responsibility to Sayres.? </span></p>
</div>
<div id="ftn21">
  <p class="MsoFootnoteText"><a href="#_ftnref21"
name="_ftn21" title="" id="_ftn21"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"><span
class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;' lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD">[21]</span></span></span></span></a><span
lang="ES-TRAD" xml:lang="ES-TRAD"> Isaiah 16:3-4.</span></p>
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